Other Images:. Manufactured from to in the various armouries of Napoleon's France, the version of this pistol offered here is marked to the Imperial armoury of St. Like the previous models, the grip is reinforced with a steel spine, and the brass pan deters corrosion.
Instead of a barrel band catch that is inlet into the wood weakens the stock, the band is instead secured by a brass tongue held by the front lock screw see opposite side picture. Exposing the ramrod more by shortening the stock allows the cavalryman's gloved hand to draw it more easily.
During the Battle of Waterloo French Cuirassiers rode close to British Infantry square formations and discharged this pistol into the massed troops. After the Napoleonic wars, because so many were made, this pistol continued its use for most of the half half of the 19th century.
Below is a painting of the Papal cavalry near Rome being ambushed by Italian brigands in by Carle Vernet. Interestingly enough, today it also appeared in the film Les Miserables, depicting the French Revolution of This design began to be copied in the United States by the gunmaker Edward Evans in and throughout the War of he produced thousands for the US Cavalry.
The only difference was Evans kept the barrel band catch. As most of Evans pistols were made towards the end of the war, it is likely they saw more use in the westward expansion of the United States. This reproduction 8 inch octagonal-to-round barrel has a. The highly-polished steel used in the barrel is made of tempered seamless modern steel type:BS no.
It's overall weight is 2. The reproduction offered here is stamped with the historically appropriate proof, inspector, and controller markings for St. Etienne armoury in The lock is made with strong durable springs and has a case-hardened frizzen hammer that throws good sparks. We use a industrial case-hardening factory process that makes sparking both more reliable and longer lasting.
Presently no other musket provider uses this technique. As with all our other flintlocks, the vent is not drilled read details below so we can ship easily to our door throughout North America and to Europe and the UK. Aside from that they are exactly like the originals.At Waterloo Sir Ponsonby together with his adjutant, Mjr Reignolds made a dash to own line, and a French lancer began pursuing them.
While they were crossing a plowed field, Ponsonby's horse got stuck in the mud and in an instant, the lancer was upon him. Ponsonby threw his saber away and surrendered. Reignolds came to his aid, but the lancer compelled both of them to dismount under the threat of his lance. At that moment, a group of Scots Grays happened to pass a short distance away, saw the three and galloped shouting in their direction with the idea of liberating Sir Ponsonby.
The others abandoned the combat completely incapable of holding their own Barbero - "The Battle". Napoleon valued these mounts highly and during reviews often asked colonels how many horses from Normandy they have in their regiments. The German horse breeders from Hananover and Holstein and traders made fortunes as Napoleon purchased huge amounts of horses for his heavy cavalry.
The Prussian large mounts were also accepted. The highest quality horses for light cavalry came from Hungary, southern Russia and Poland. For light cavalry Napoleon purchased horses from almost every province of France but especially from Ardennes, Taubes and Auvergne. In many Prussian MecklenburgianSyrian and Turkish horses were purchased.Battle of Waterloo: Napoleon commits the Guard
After victorious war in Napoleon dismounted Prussian cavalry, and in and dismounted the Austrian cavalry.
Thousands of horses were also taken from Saxony, Hannover and Spain. Many horses were purchased or simply taken from Polish farms. After the disaster in Russia inseveral Polish cavalry regiments were still in good shape.
Especially the Lithuanian uhlans. Napoleon stripped these regiments of all their horses in an effort to remount the cavalry of Imperial Guard. Nafziger - "Lutzen and Bautzen" p 9 John Elting wrote about the horsecare in French cavalry: "Too many French were careless horsemasters, turning their animals loose at night into fields of green grain or clover without supervision.
Thousands overate and died of the colic. Germans and Poles were more careful. They are excellent for use on campaigns where there are lots of hardships, but they do have some beauty defects. During peacetime the regiments of light and line cavalry had color of horses according to squadron : I Squadron : 1st 'elite' company rode on blacks, 5th company on browns nad blacks II Squadron : 2nd company rode on bays, 6th company on bays III Squadron : 3rd company on chestnuts, 7th company on chestnuts IV Squadron : 4th and 8th company on grays and whites But already after the first campaign only some colonels insisted on keeping up these peacetime practicies.
The heavy cavalry rode on black horses. Prussian king Frederick the Great insisted that the black horses should go to the cuirassiers. He considered the black of the coat as a sign of quality.
Height of horses. After war in the minimum height for horses were relaxed, even for the cuirassiers. But when Prussian and Austrian horses were captured and new territories annexed the requirements were heightened. In the height of horses was as follow: cuirassiers and carabiniers. The Arabian mounts were not as fast as European warmbloods but they were sure-footed.Officer of 94th Line Infantry Regiment "The French infantry was indisputably the finest in Europe inand perhaps even the finest infantry fielded throughout the wars of During the Napoleonic Wars the infantry formed the backbone of all European armies.
The infantrymen were the easiest to train and the cheapest to equip. Horses were expensive and required training. Cannons, howitzers and mortars were even more expensive than horses. And artillery training was much more complicated than in cavalry and infantry. The French infantry was the most numerous infantry in the western World in that time. Such huge force was necessary as France had several powerful and aggressive enemies on land; Russia, Prussia and Austria all had large armies.
In this situation accepting only small number, but highly trained, volunteers as it was in Switzerland neutral country, separated by mountains and in Britain separated from her enemies by seawas not enough. Napoleon relied on conscription. Universal conscription in the modern sense originated during the French Revolution, when the nation needed stronger military forces, initially to defend the country against counter-revolutionary multi-national invasion and subsequently to expand its ideas throughout Europe.
The Jourdan Act stated: "Any Frenchman is a soldier and owes himself to the defense of the nation". The law required all single men who reached 20 years of age to be eligible for conscription for 5 years. Conscriptees were chosen by ballot in their localities. Napoleon consequently inherited a greatly expanded army based on conscription, from which he created the imperial army. In the first years of the empire the number of conscripted was between 2 and 3.
But conscripts were not volunteers. Half a million potential conscripts evaded the draft. The numerous and bloody campaigns made the military service unpopular and desertions became a serious problem. Napoleon's brother Louis Bonaparte, who was King of Holland from tohad tried to introduce conscription, unsuccessfully. Bonaparte never thought there should be a serious problem with the conscription in France. He believed that the French possessed a natural affinity for war.
Napoleon regarded the military profession as a "career natural to all Frenchmen. They were believed to inherit the martial traits passed on by their warriors forebears who had defended France for many centuries. There were many volunteers in the Revolutionary and Napoleon's Imperial army.
Francois-Joseph Zickel was born the son of a soldier, and from a young age he eagerly desired to follow in his father's footsteps. In the heady days ofas Revolutionary France prepared its defenses, he enlisted in one of the new local guard units that were formed to supplement the regiments of the former Royal Army.Cavalry were organised on much the same principles as infantry.
Cavalry regiments were divided into a number of administrative sub-units which most nations called companies the British called these troops which can cause confusion since a French troop was a half-company. The norm was 8 companies per regiment but some nations had regiments with 10, 12, 16 or even 20, often with additional depot companies to train new recruits. These administrative cavalry companies fulfilled exactly the same training and administrative functions as infantry companies.
The primary cavalry tactical unit for all nations was the squadron, not the regiment. One visual indication of this was the fact that each British cavalry squadron carried a guidon, as a separate rallying and reference point, as in the infantry one set of colours were carried per battalion.
In all nations squadrons were formed from two equalised companies which, once equalised, the French called peletons and the British called half squadrons. British regulations describe the equalisation of the troops forming the squadron as follows:.
The commanding officer of the squadron completes the files, and equalizes the troops, by shifting a file or two if necessary. Squadrons of all nations were remarkably similar in size, which results simply from the fact that equine physiology dictates that there is an optimum number of horses which can be manoeuvred as a single formation.
This general principal was stated clearly by the famous Prussian cavalry commentator General Emanuel von Warnery in the 18 th century :. During the 18 th century cavalry had formed in 3 ranks but throughout the Napoleonic wars the cavalry of all nations formed in two ranks.
Some nations maintained establishments for their cavalry which were similar to those of the 18 th century even although the consequence of the move to 2 ranks was to expand squadron frontages.
Others reduced the established size of the squadron to recognise the effect of the move to 2 ranks. There were various changes in establishment during the Napoleonic wars but typical established sizes of Napoleonic cavalry squadrons are shown in table 1.
Field Strength of Cavalry Squadrons during the Napoleonic Wars
On the whole it can be seen that established strengths were very similar and mostly lay in the range to all ranks. The exception was the French Imperial Guard which had larger squadrons than normal, but frequently made detachments of officers as couriers, sometimes accompanied by an escort of troopers.
The use of the guard cavalry in this role also explains their very high proportion of officers. For most nations the effect of similar sized establishments for squadrons meant that squadron frontages were also similar. There were a few variations from this general principle.
Typical squadron sizes in field conditions are shown in Table 2. For cavalry, just like infantry, the Regiment was an administrative unit and most Napoleonic Cavalry Regiments attempted to maintain their optimum Squadron strengths by reducing the number of Squadrons in the Regiment when necessary.
Most nations had cavalry regiments with an establishment of 4 squadrons per regiment and between — men per squadron. Regiments invariably started campaigns with strengths close to this as recorded by Marbot:.Non Standard game all the way!. Great action, great looking armies and I hope great fellow gamers. Sent the Russian Guard packing back to Moscow M aka WR. Excellent battle report and lovely figures, Nice to see an battle with the Bavarians joining in with their new allies.
Cheers Paul. Enjoyable battle report! They were a nice looking set of figures and table. Next time can we get a another look at the Italians? Post a Comment. Books I have read and recommend. Shelfari: Book reviews on your book blog. The enclosed field on the French left flank were hottly contested.
Note "The Hook". That's the bend in the road. His tactical bonus helped repel the first assault by the Russian Guard, but it cost him his life! They did very well holing the Russian Guards back for a considerable time. First rounds for the day belch from French Guns.
Nearest to the viewer are the four guns of the divisional artillery. Top right is the Horse artillery that was send ahead from the cavalry BDE.The French campaign of saw Napoleon's last great military achievements. Although the campaign ended with an Allied victory and Napoleon's first abdication, he had managed to inflict a series of defeats on the Allied armies invading France in a campaign that recalled his great achievements in Italy at the start of his career, and demonstrated that Napoleon was still very adept at leading small armies.
At the start of Napoleon appeared to be at the height of his power.
He ruled an Empire that included a greatly expanded France, large parts of Italy and Germany and even a revived Poland.
A series of coalitions had failed, and only Britain, Spain and Portugal were actively fighting him. Portrait of Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult. Over the next two years the French position collapsed. In Napoleon invaded Russiabut his attempts to force the Russians to accept a battle near their borders failed, and he was sucked deep into the country.
The occupation of Moscow failed to force the Russians to negotiate, and the remnants of the Grand Armee were forced to retreat west. Only a tiny fraction of the original army escaped from Russia, leaving Napoleon dangerously exposed to attack. He rushed back to France, raised a fresh army just as large as the one lost in Russia, but lacking the experience. An attempt to hold the line in eastern Germany failed after Prussia joined the Sixth Coalition.
The new army was largely successful in the spring campaign in Germany inbut the autumn campaign ended in defeat at Leipzig. Once again the remnants of the Grand Armee limped back into French, where Napoleon attempted to raise a second new army.
By now the French were almost alone — Austria had joined the coalition for the autumn campaign, Poland was lost, and most of Napoleon's German allies had changed sides some actually during the fighting at Leipzig.
In Italy Prince Eugene de Beauharnais still held the north of the country, but Marshal Murat in Naples was also close to changing sides. In Spain the French had suffered a decisive defeat at Vitoria 21 June and been forced back to the Pyrenees. Despite the best efforts of Marshal Soultthe Allied army of the Marquess of Wellington was on French soil by the start of The key campaign in was fought on the eastern borders of France, and in particular in Champagne and nearby areas east of Paris.
The Allies had three armies in this area, although only two of them would play a major part in the campaign. He had aroundmen at his disposal.
His army would then split, with some elements moving south to join troops coming from Italy or south-west to join Wellington, while the main column moved towards Paris to attack Napoleon's right flank. Next in line was Marshal Blucher's Army of Silesia ofmen. This was to cross the Rhine between Coblenz and Mannerheim and pin Napoleon in place. As the campaign developed, large parts of this army would be used to reinforce Blucher's Army of Silesia, much to Bernadotte's annoyance.
The French had been caught out by the rapid collapse of their position in Germany. As a result many of Napoleon's most experienced men spent the campaign of trapped in fortresses deep inside Allied territory.
Battle of Paris (1814)
Amongst these forces was the garrison of Hamburg, and its able commander Marshal Davout. While these isolated garrisons did tie up a number of Allied soldiers, Napoleon would badly miss their experienced garrisons and commanders during At the start of Napoleon thus had a very small army to defend the eastern frontiers of France. General Maison had 15, men in Belgium. Marshal Victorwith 10, men and some garrisons had to defend the long stretch of border from Strasbourg to the Upper Rhine and the Swiss frontier.
Napoleon had very limited reserves. Marshal Augereau was meant to be raising a new army around Lyons, but although this force worried the Allied commander, it never amounted to much.Campaign in south-west France.
After a day of fighting in the suburbs of Paris, the French surrendered on March 31, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition and forcing Emperor Napoleon to abdicate and go into exile. Napoleon was retreating from his failed invasion of Russia in Even though the French were victorious in the initial battles during their campaign in Germanythe Coalition armies eventually joined together and defeated them at the Battle of Leipzig in the autumn of The supreme commander of the Coalition forces in the theatre and the paramount monarch among the three main Coalition monarchs, the Russian Tsar Alexander Ithen ordered all Coalition forces in Germany to cross the Rhine and invade France.
The Coalition forces, numbering more than and divided into three groups, finally entered northeastern France in January Facing them in the theatre were 70, Frenchmen, but they had the advantage of fighting in friendly territory, shorter supply linesand more secure lines of communication. They even considered ordering a general retreat.
But Tsar Alexander I was far more determined than ever to victoriously enter Paris whatever the cost, imposing his will upon Schwarzenberg and the wavering monarchs.
Meanwhile, shifting his forces from the Aisne to this sector, Napoleon and his army engaged another Coalition army, under Schwarzenberg, which was also threatening Paris to its southeast near the Aube Riverat the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube on 20 March. After this, the Coalition forces advanced yet again towards Paris.
Until this battle it had been nearly years since a foreign army had entered Parisduring the Hundred Years' War. Since the disaster in Russia and the start of the war, the French populace had been increasingly becoming war-weary. Even Napoleon's own ex-foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrandsent a letter to the Coalition monarchs stating that the Parisians were already becoming angry against their Emperor and would even welcome the Coalition armies if they were to enter the city.
The leaders of the Coalition decided that Paris, and not Napoleon himself, was now the main objective. For the plan, some generals proposed their respective plans, but one, that of the Russian general Tollfitted precisely what Tsar Alexander I had in mind; attack Paris head-on with the main Coalition army while redirecting Napoleon as far away from the city as possible.
The Tsar intended to ride out to meet the Prussian king and Schwarzenberg. They met on a road leading directly to Paris and the Tsar proposed his intentions. He brought a map and spread it to the ground for all of them to see as they talked about the plan. The plan was for the entire main Coalition army to stop pursuing Napoleon and his army and instead march directly to Paris. The exception was Wintzingerode 's 10,strong cavalry detachment and eight horse batteries which were to follow and mislead Napoleon that the Coalition army was still pursuing him southwards.
As was usual, the king agreed as did Schwarzenberg. The main Coalition army began its march towards Paris on 28 March, and at the same day Wintzingerode's unit was now performing his task. The deception campaign worked. While the main Coalition army attacked Paris, Wintzingerode's unit hotly pursued Napoleon and his rag-tag army to the southeast, but was later beaten back by the latter. However, by the time the emperor knew of the subterfuge, he was already too far away to the southeast of Paris, which by this time was now faced with Coalition forces.
He would never reach the city in time, thus he also could not participate in the upcoming battle for the city. The Austrian, Prussian and Russian armies were joined together and put under the command of Field Marshal Count Barclay de Tolly who would also be responsible for the taking of the city, but the driving force behind the army was the Tsar of Russia and the King of Prussia, moving with the army.